Factors Influencing Student Academic Performance in Online Credit Recovery
Dr. Dave Nourse
Recent estimates show nearly 90% of school districts nationwide offer some form of online credit recovery. Despite its widespread adoption, there is a dearth of research surrounding the suitability of online credit recovery for students. This study examined potential success factors of students enrolled in virtual recovery courses in a school district in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, and binary logistic regression modeling was used for data analysis to account for the influence of student characteristics on credit recovery outcome. Findings revealed that grade-level, IEP status, and middle school End-of-Grade Test results could be linked to achievement in online credit recovery courses. Implications of these findings for educators are discussed
Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2009, November). Buyer, Be Aware. Educational Leadership.
Archambault, L., Diamond, D., Brown, R., Cavanaugh, C., Coffey, M., Foures-Aalbu, D., . . . Zygouris-Coe, V. (2010). Research committee issues brief: An exploration of at-risk learners and online education. Vienna, VA: International Association for K-12 Online Learning.
Bridgeland, J., Dilulio, J., & Morison, K. (2006). The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts. A report by Civic Enterprises in association with Peter D. Hart Research Associates for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Bulger, S., & Watson, D. (2006). Broadening the definition of at-risk students. The Community College Enterprise, 12(2), 23-32.
Burdette, P., Franklin, F., East, T., & Mellard, D. (2015). Practices and challenges in online instruction for students with disabilities: State education agency forum proceedings series (report 3): IDEA principles in the online environment. Retrieved from www.centerononlinelearning.org.
Carver, P., Lewis, L., & Coopersmith, J. (2011). Dropout prevention services and programs in public school districts in 2010-11. Washington DC: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Cavanaugh, C., Repetto, J., & Wayer, N. (2011, August). Virtual schooling for students at risk: Interventions for success. In the 27th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning.
Coleman, J., Campbell, E., Hobson, C., McPartland, J., Mood, A., Weinfeld, F., & York, R. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Dessoff, A. (Oct. 2009). Reaching graduation with credit recovery. District Administration. Retrieved from: http://www.districtadministration.com/article/reaching-graduation-credit-recovery
Davis, M. (2015, Sept. 23). Online credit recovery in need of overhaul, study says. Education Week, 35(5), 8.
Dowling, C. (1994). Grade Level as a Predictor of Returning Dropouts’ Success: A Program Review. The High School Journal, 28-34.
Fazey, D., & Fazey, J. (2001). The potential for autonomy in learning: Perceptions of competence, motivation and locus of control in first-year undergraduate students. Studies in Higher Education, 26(3), 345-361.
Finn, J. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59(2), 117-142.
Finn, J. (1993). School engagement and students at risk. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Finn, C. (2012). The credit recovery scam. Washington DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute Advancing Educational Excellence. Retrieved from: http://edexcellence.net/commentary/education-gadfly-daily/flypaper/2012/the-credit-recovery-charade-1.html
Fichten, C., Ferraro, V., Asuncion, J., Chwojka, C., Barile, M., Nguyen, M., Klomp, R., & Wolforth, J. (2009). Disabilities and e-Learning Problems and Solutions: An Exploratory Study. Educational Technology & Society, 12(4), 241–256.
Freudenberg, N., & Ruglis, J. (2009). Reframing school dropout as a public health issue. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(4), 1-11. Retrieved from: www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2007/oct/07_0063.htm
Greaves, T., & Hayes, J. (2008). America’s digital schools 2008: Six trends to watch. California: The Greaves Group.
Heppen, J., Sorensen, N., Allensworth, E., Walters, K., Stachel, S., & Michelman, V. (2014). Proceedings from SREE Spring 2014: Efficacy of Online Algebra I for Credit Recovery for At-Risk Ninth Graders: Consistency of Results from Two Cohorts. Washington, DC.
Heppen, J., Sorensen, N., Allensworth, E., Walters, K., Rickles, J., Taylor, S., & Michelman, V. (2017). The struggle to pass algebra: Online vs. face-to-face credit recovery for at-risk urban students. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(2), 272-296.
Kolstad, A., & Owings, J. (1987). High school dropouts who change their minds about school. In W.T. Dentón (ed.), Dropouts, pushouts, and other casualties (pp. 55 86). Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta
Liu, F. & Cavanaugh, C. (2011). High enrollment course success factors in virtual school: Factors influencing student academic achievement. International Journal on E-Learning, 10(4), 393-418.
Liu, F. & Cavanaugh, C. (2012). Factors influencing student academic performance in online high school algebra. Open Learning 27(2), 149–167.
Martin, P. (2006). Factors supporting the success of at-risk high school students (Doctoral Dissertation). The University of North Carolina at Greensboro: Greensboro, NC.
McCabe, J., & St. Andrie, R. (2012). Credit recovery programs. Alexandria, VA: Center for Public Education.
McFarland, J., Cui, J., Rathbun, A., & Holmes, J. (2018). Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2018. Compendium Report. NCES 2019-117. National Center for Education Statistics.
Müller, E. (2009). Serving students with disabilities in state-level virtual K-12 public school programs. Alexandria, VA: Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education.
NCVPS | North Carolina Virtual Public School (2011). 2011 Annual Report. Retrieved from: https://www.ncvps.org/wp-content/uploads/annual_report_ncvps2011.pdf
Neild, R., & Balfanz, R. (2006). Unfulfilled promise: The dimensions and characteristics of Philadelphia’s dropout crisis, 2000-2005. Baltimore: Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University.
Oliver, K., Kellogg, S., Townsend, L., & Brady, K. (2010). Needs of elementary and middle school teachers developing online courses for a virtual school. Distance Education 31(1), 55-75.
Picciano, A., & Seaman, J. (2007). K–12 online learning: A survey of US school district administrators. Needham, MA: Sloan Consortium.
Pearson Digital Learning. (2004). NovaNET courseware for grades 6-12: Developed, validated and refined by research. New York: Pearson.
Powell, A., Roberts, V., & Patrick, S. (2015). Using online learning for credit recovery: Getting back on track to graduation. Vienna, VA: International Association for K-12 Online Learning.
Queen, B., & Lewis, L. (2011). Distance education courses for public elementary and secondary school students: 2009-10. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Rhim, L., & Kowal, J. (2008). Demystifying Special Education in Virtual Charter Schools. Alexandria, VA: Special Education Technical Assistance for Charter Schools Project.
Rodrick, M. (1993). The path to dropping out: evidence for intervention. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Rickles, J., Heppen, J. B., Allensworth, E., Sorensen, N., & Walters, K. (2018). Online credit recovery and the path to on-time high school graduation. Educational Researcher, 47(8), 481-491.
Sapers, J. (2014). Credit Recovery. Scholastic Administrator, Spring, 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3758364
SAS | SAS Institute Inc. (2016). Education Value-Added Assessment System, SAS EVASS for K-12 | SAS. Retrieved from: http://www.sas.com/en_us/industry/k-12-education/evaas.html
Stillwell, R. (2009). Public school graduates and dropouts from the common core of data: School Year 2006–07 (NCES 2010-313). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2010313
Sum, A., Khatiwada, I., McLaughlin, J., & Palma, S. (2009). The consequences of dropping out of high school: Joblessness and jailing for high school dropouts and the high cost for taxpayers. Boston, MA: Center for Labor Market Studies.
Tompkins, R., & Deloney, P. (1994). Rural students at risk in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas. Retrieved from: http://www.sedl.org/rural/atrisk/welcome.html
US DOE (2018). Issues Brief: Credit Recovery. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education,
Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service. Retrieved from: https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/high-school/credit-recovery.pdf
Varlas, L. (2005, August). Bridging the widest gap: Raising the achievement of black boys. Education Update, 47 (8), 1-8.
Watson, J., & Gemin, B. (2008). Promising practices in online learning: Using online learning for at-risk students and credit recovery. Vienna, VA: International Association for K-12 Online Learning.
Wright, S., Sanders, W. & Rivers, J. (2006). Measurement of academic growth of individual students toward variable and meaningful academic standards. Longitudinal and value added models of student performance, 385-406.
Zehr, M. (2010). Demand still growing for online-credit recovery classes. Education Week, 29(36), 9-10.
Zenith, J. (2011). Credit Recovery and Proficiency-Based Credit. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. Retrieved from: http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/94/23/9423.pdf