Implementation of Immersive Classroom Simulation Activities in a Mathematics Methods Course and a Life and Environmental Science Course

Abstract

This study investigated the influence of immersive classroom simulation activities on the development of elementary pre-service teachers in two separate mathematics and science education courses that simultaneously focus on pedagogy and content. Participants submitted written personal reflections about their teaching experiences using the immersive classroom simulation activities. These reflections were analyzed for common emergent themes within and across courses. The participants discussed the benefits of the immersive classroom simulation activities in their written personal reflections. They viewed the experience as helpful in developing their skills as a practicing teacher in mathematics and science.

Specifically, participants identified three sub-themes including: (a) the immersive classroom simulation activities as being beneficial by providing more authentic real-life teaching experiences than those experienced during peer-group teaching activities; (b) the importance of holding complete and appropriate understandings of content when teaching mathematics and science; and (c) the role of deep content knowledge in the process of developing high quality questions for students. This study has shown immersive classroom simulation activities to be a viable alternative for teacher education programs to engage elementary preservice teachers in developing skills regarding classroom mathematics and science discourse.

Full Text

PDF

REFERENCES

Alexander, R. (2008). Towards dialogic teaching: Rethinking classroom talk (4th ed.). Cambridge: Dialogos.

Allsopp, D.H., DeMarie, D., Alvarez-McHatton, P., & Doone, E. (2006). Bridging the gap between theory and practice: Connecting courses with field experiences. Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(1), 19-35.

Brown, J.S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42.

Brownell, M.T., Chard, D., Benedict, A., & Lignugaris/Kraft, B. (2005). Preparing general and special education preservice teachers for Response to Intervention: A practice-based approach. In P.Pullen & M. Kennedy (Eds.), Handbook of response to intervention and multi-tiered instruction. New, NY: Routledge.

Candela, A. (2005). Students’ participation as co-authoring of science institutional practices. Cultural and Psychology, 11(3), 321-337.

Chapin, S. H., O’Connor, C., & Anderson, N. C. (2013). Classroom discussions in math: A Teacher’s Guide for Using Talk Moves to Support the Common Core and More, Grades K-6: A Multimedia Professional Learning Resource. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.

Chin, C. (2007). Teacher questioning in science classrooms: Approaches that stimulate productive thinking. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(6), 815-843.

Clift, R. T., & Brady, P. (2005). Research on methods courses and field experiences. In M. Cochran-Smith & K. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education (pp. 309-324). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Cornelius, L. L., & Herrenkohl, L. R. (2004). Power in the classroom: How the classroom environment shapes students’ relationships with each other and with concepts. Cognition and Instruction, 22(4), 467-498.

Correnti, R., Stein, M. K., Smith, M. S., Scherrer, J., McKeown, M., Greeno, J., & Ashley, K. Improving Teaching at Scale: Design for the Scientific Measurement and Learning of Discourse Practice. In L.B Resnick, C. Asterham & S. Clark (Eds.), Socializing Intelligence Through Academic Talk and Dialogue

Dieker, L. A., Hynes, M., Hughes, C., & Smith, E. (2008). Implications of mixed reality and simulation technologies on special education and teacher preparation. Focus on Exceptional Children, 40(6), 1-20.

Dieker, L.A., Rodriquez, J.A., Lignugaris/Kraft, B., Hynes, M.C., & Hughes, C.E. (2014). The potential of simulated environments in teacher education: Current and future possibilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37, 21-33.

Duit, R., & Treagust, D. (1998). Learning in science: From behaviourism towards social constructivism and beyond. In B.J. Fraser&K.G.Tobin (Eds.), International Handbook of Science Education (pp. 3–25). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Duschl, R. (2008). Quality argumentation and epistemic criteria. In S. Erduran & M.-P. Jime´nez-Aleixandre (Eds.), Argumentation in science education: Perspectives from classroom-based research (pp. 159–175). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Elford, M.D. (2013). Using tele-coaching to increase behavior-specific praise delivered by secondary teachers in an augmented reality learning environment (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest. (UMI No. 3559157).

Esmonde, I. (2009). Explanations in Mathematics Classrooms: A Discourse Analysis. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, 9(2), 86-99, doi: 10.1080/14926150902942072

Erodogan, I., & Campbell, T. (2008). Teacher questioning and interaction patterns in classrooms facilitated with differing levels of constructivist teaching practices. International Journal of Science Education, 30(14), 1-24.

Ghousseini, H., & Herbst, P. (2016). Pedagogies of practice and opportunities to learn about classroom mathematics discussions. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 19(1), 79-103.

Girod, M., & Girod, G. (2008). Simulation and the need for practice in teacher preparation. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16, 307-337.

Grossman, P., Hammerness, K., & McDonald, M. (2009). Redefining teaching, re‐imagining teacher education. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 15(2), 273-289.

Kazemi, E., Franke, M., & Lampert, M. (2009, July). Developing pedagogies in teacher education to support novice teachers’ ability to enact ambitious instruction. In Crossing divides: Proceedings of the 32nd annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (Vol. 1, pp. 12-30). Adelaide, SA: MERGA.

Keeley, P., Eberle, F., & Farrin, L. (2005). Uncovering Student Ideas in Science: 25 formative assessment probes. National Science Teachers Association Press. Volume 1.

Kovalainen, M., & Kumpulainen, K. (2005). The discursive practice of participation in an elementary classroom community. Instructional Science, 33(3), 213–250.

Lampert, M., Beasley, H., Ghousseini, H., Kazemi, E., & Franke, M. (2010). Using designed instructional activities to enable novices to manage ambitious mathematics teaching. In Instructional explanations in the disciplines (pp. 129-141). Springer, Boston, MA.

Lampert, M., Franke, M. L., Kazemi, E., Ghousseini, H., Turrou, A. C., Beasley, H., & Crowe, K. (2013). Keeping it complex: Using rehearsals to support novice teacher learning of ambitious teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(3), 226-243.

Lead States (2013). Next Generation Science Standards: For States, by States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Lehesvuori, S., Viiri, J., & Rasku-Puttonen, H. (2011). Introducing dialogic teaching to science student teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 22(8), 705–727.

Lyle, S. (2008). Dialogic teaching: Discussing theoretical contexts and reviewing evidence from classroom practice. Language and Education, 23(3), 222–240.

Maheady, L., Smith, C., & Jabot, M. (2014). Field experiences and instructional pedagogies in teacher education: What we know, don’t know, and must learn soon. In P. Sindelar, E. D. McRay, M. T. Brownell, & B. Lignugaris/Kraft (Eds.), Handbook of research on special education teacher preparation (pp. 161-177). New York, NY: Routledge.

Mercer, N. & Hodgkinson, S. (2008) (eds) Exploring Talk in School: inspired by the work of Douglas Barnes. London: Sage

Michaels, S., & O’Connor, C. (2012). Talk Science Primer. National Science Foundation. TERC.

Michaels, S., & O’Connor, C. (2015). Conceptualizing talk moves as tools: Professional development approaches for academically productive discussion. Socializing intelligence through talk and dialogue, 347-362.

Moje, E., Collazo, T., Carillo, R., & Marx, R. (2001). Maestro what is “quality?” Language, literacy, and discourse in project based science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 469-498.

Moschkovich, J. (2002). A situated and sociocultural perspective on bilingual mathematics learners. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 4(2–3), 189–212.

Muschla, G. R., & Muschla-Berry, E. (2015). Teaching the common core math standards with hands-on activities, grades 9-12. John Wiley & Sons.

National Research Council. (2008). Ready, Set, SCIENCE!: Putting Research to Work in K-8 Science Classrooms. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11882.

Pretti-Frontczak, K., Brown, T., Senderak, A., & Walsh, J. (2005). A preliminary investigation of the effectiveness of CaseQuests in preparing family-guided and technologically-competent early childhood interventionists. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 21, 87-93.

Richardson-Bruna, K., Vann, R., & Escudero, M. P. (2007). What’s language got to do with it? A case study of academic language instruction in a high school “English Learner Science” class. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6, 36–54.

Roth, W. M. (2008). The nature of scientific conceptions: A discursive psychological perspective. Educational Research Review, 3, 30–50.

Roth, W.M., & Lucas, K.B. (1997). From “truth” to “invented reality”: A discourse analysis of high school physics students talk about scientific knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34(2), 145-179.

Sandoval, W. A., & Morrison, K. (2003), High school students’ ideas about theories and theory change after a biological inquiry unit. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40, 369-392. doi:10.1002/tea.10081

Scott, P.H., Mortimer, E.F., & Aguiar, O. G. (2006). The tension between authoritative and dialogic discourse: A fundamental characteristic of meaning making interactions in high school science lessons. Science Education, 90(4), 605-631.

Sfard, A. (2001) There is more to discourse than meets the ears: Looking at thinking as communicating to learn more about mathematical learning. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 46(1-3), 13-57. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014097416157

Straub, C., Dieker, L., Hynes, M., & Hughes, C. (2016). TeachLivE Year 3 Research Report. Retrieved from http://teachlive.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/2016-TeachLivE-Year-3-Technical-Report.pdf

Thompson, J., Windschitl, M., & Braaten, M. (2013). Developing a theory of ambitious early-career teacher practice. American Educational Research Journal, 50(3), 574-615.

Tobin, K. & Tippins, D. (1993). Constructivism as a referent for teaching and learning. In K. Tobin & D. Tippins (Eds.), The practice of constructivism in science education (pp. 3–22). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

van Eijck, M., & Roth, W. M. (2011). Cultural diversity in science education through novelization: Against the epicization of science and cultural centralization. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48, 824–847.

Van Zee, E.H., Iwasyk, M., Kurose, A., Simpson, D., & Wild, J. (2001). Student and teacher questioning during conversations about science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(2), 159-190.

Venters, C., McNair, L., & Pareti, M. (2014) Writing and conceptual knowledge in statics: Does learning approach matter?

Weinstein, C. S., Tomlinson-Clarke, S., Curran, M. (2004). Toward a conception of culturally responsive classroom management. Journal of Teacher Education, 55, 25-38. Doi: 10.1177/0022487103259812